Posted by: lafoole | June 2, 2008

Af-bixiye luuqadda Af Somaliga

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Posted by: lafoole | May 20, 2008





Glossary Biology


Abdomen: Posterior body region of an arthropod, region in

Vertebrate housing many internal organs,

Abiotic factors.physical non living aspect which interact with the organism of an


Abscision: (ab SIZH unh), the falling of leaves from trees

Abscision layer: group of cells, which form between the stem and the petiole of a leaf.

Abyssal zone: deepest part of the ocean where light is absent.

Acceleration area in the medulla oblongata from which The accleretor nerve originate

Accelerator nerve: nerve which increase the heart beat by stimulating the SA node

Acetylcholine: neurotrasprantmitter, which is produced by the vagus nerve and inhibits the rate of contration of heart, muscles in human.

Acid > substance which in solution has a large number of hyrogen ions then hydroxide


Acquired characteristic < change in an organism caused by use of disuse of certain    body parts

Actin:  substance, which in solution has a large number of hyrogen ions than hydroxide ion.

Action potentail; revversal of  ploarity and flow of ions in a neuron cuased by the stimulus.

Activation energy energy source necessary to start some chemical reactions

Active site particular portion of an enzyme molescule, which fits a substance

Active trasport energy requiring process in which a cell plays a role in th e passage of materail across the plasma membrane

Adaptation inhereited charateristic which enabales a living thing to survive in it natural enviroment.

Adaptice radiation: evolution of many news  forms from a single ancestor

Adenine one of the bases in nucleic acids

Adenisine diphospghate complex molecule containing adenine,ribone and two phosphates

Adebisube triohosphate complex molecule containing adenine,ribone and three phosphatees used as an enegery source in all organism,

Adhesion attraction between unlike molecules.

Adrenal contex outer portion of the adrenal glad.

Adrenal gland endocrine glad on top of each gland


Adrenal medulla endoctine glad on top of each kioney

Adrenaline: hormone secreted enables the body to cope with emergencies also called epinephrine.

Adrenocirtucitrophic hormone. ACTH hormone secreted by the anterior pituitry, stimulatles the andrenal cortex to secrete its hormones


Aerobe respiraation: organism, which uses oxygen in respiration.

Agglutination:  process in which red blood cells clump toghter


Aldosterone:  hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex, controls salt level in the blood

Algae: inicellular or multicellular photosynthetic protist

Algal bloom:  rapid growth of algea

Alimentary: canal, long, hollow tube in animals throught which food passes during 


Allantois: sac, which collects metabolic waste products in the shelled egg, also functions

            With the chorion in gas exchange

Allele: dominant or ressesive form, which a gene may take

All or none responsive: a muscle fiber contracts fully or does n’t contact at all, a neuron

Either carries an impulse or does nt not carry it at all.

Alternation of generation: life cycle in plants and plantlike prostists, dipliod and

Monoploid generation follow each other

Altitudinal: succession, cintinous succesion of community types from low hight altitutes

Alveoli: small, moist sac in the lungs, sites of gas exchange

Amerinds: An mjor human race in one system of classification, which includes American, Indians and Eskimos.

Amino: acids compound which are the building blocks of protiens.

Ammonification: stage of the nortrogen cycles during which bacteria metabolize amino acids and produce ammonia.

Amniocentesis: technique in which some of the amniotic fluid sorounding an embryo is removed for analysis.

Amnion: fluid filled sac surrounding the embroyo protects the embryo and keeps it moist.


Amoeboid: motion, movement by pseudopodia, motion of amoebae and amoebalike cells.

Amphibians, vertebrates that live both on land and in water, class amphibia.

Anaerobic: respiration , respiration in the absence in respiration.

Anaphase: phase of mitosis during which one strand of each chromosome is pulled to each pole of the cell, phase in meiosisos I in which homologous chromosomes are separated and pulled to each pole of the cell.

Anatomy: study of the structures of organisms.

Androgens: male sex hormones

Anemia: disease in which the number of new red blood cells produced is less than the number being destroyed.

Angiosperms: flowering plants.

Angstrom: extremely small linear unit measuring only 0,0000001 mm.  


Animal: multicellur, heterotrophic organism, usualy mobile, most are controlled by nerves.

Animal pole: top haft of a frog egg composed of cytoplasm and a dark pigment.

Annelids: segmented worms, phylum annelida.

Annual ring: circular lines in a woody stem, which represent growth during a year.

Antennae: organs of hearing and balance in arthropods.

Anterior: front part of an animal.

Aneterior pituitary :one of the two lobes of the pituitery gland, many of its hormones control other endocrine glands.

Anther: male sporangium at the tip of stamens.

Antheridium: male sex organ in bryophytes and ferns.


Antibody: chemical, which fights off a virus or other foreign microorganism.

Anticodon: set of three bases at one end of tRRNS, fits only certain codon of mRNA

Antigen: specific protein on the surfaces of red blood cells, any foreign protein which causes antibody formation.

Anus: opening through which undigested materials are expelled.

Aorta: large artery leading from the heart.

Aortic: arches, five pair of enlarged tubes heart in annelids.

Apical dominance: effect, which retards the growth of lateral buds in the presence of the apical bud.

Appendix: small organs attacked to the large intestine, vestigial in humans.

Arachnids: class of arthropods, spiders, ticks, mites, and scorpions.


Arboreal: tree dwelling

Archegonium: female sex organ in bryophytes and ferns.

Archenteron: internal cavity in the developing embryo develops in to the alimentary canal.

Artery: blood vessel, which carries blood away from the heart to the body.


Arthropods: animals having an exoskeleton and joined appendages phylum arthropoda.

Artificial selection: procedure in which humans breed organism with most desirable features.

Ascending colon: portion of the large intestine into which undigested materials from the small intestine pass.

Ascus: sacklike structure in which spores are produced by meiosis in certain fungi.  


Asexual: reproduction, reproduction in which a single parent produces one or more offspring by mitosis.


Assocaition neuron: neuron, which connects sensory neurons and motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord.


Atom: smallest particles of an elementm basic building block of all matter.

ATP ADP Cycles. Series reaction by which ATP is converted to ADP and ADP is converted back to ATP

Atrioventricular: node, small bundle of tissue between atria and ventricles, which receives the current from the SA node

Aatrium: heart chamber which receives blood in vertebrates, also called auricle.


Australoids: major human race in one system of classification, includes Australian aborigines.

Australipithecus: genus of prehumans that lived around 2 million ears ago in Southern Africa


Autonomic: nervous system, system which controls involuntry response.

Aurtosome: body chromosome, as distibguished from sex chromosome.

Autoroph: organism, which can produce it own food.

Auxin: plant hormone.

Aves: class of verbrates charaterized by feathers and lightweight bones for fight.


Axon: long part of a neuron leading away from the cell body, trasmits impulse away from the cell

Bacili: rod shaped bacteria.

Bacteria: very small. Prokaryotic, unicellular, heterotrophic organisms

(Lack nuclei and some organelles)


Bacterial trasformation: change in heredity traits in one bacterium caused by another bacterium.

Bacteruiphage: virus which reproduces in bacteria,also called phage.

Bark: outermost layers of a woody stem.

Base: substance, which in solution has a greater concentration of hydroxide IONS than hydrogen IONS an alkaline solution.

Basidia: club shaped spore-producing structure in certain fungi.

B-cell: lymphocyte, which does not pass through the thymus gland, divides to form a clone and produces antibodies.

Behevior: responses made by an organism to the stimuli of its enviroment.

Behevioral: adaptation, adaptation involving reactions to the enviroment.

Benthos: animals, which live, attached to or crawl on the ocean floor.

Bicuspid valve: valve, which prevents blood from, forced back in to the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts

Bilateral symmetry: body pattern in which only one longitudinal cut will produce two sides that are mirror.

Bile: greenish liquid produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder, emulfies fat in the small interstine.

Binomial nomenclature: two term naming system used in classifying organism.

Biogenesis: thoery, which states that at the present time and under present condition on earth, all living thing are produced from other living things.

Biological clock: mechanism, which controls certain time, related activities of animals.

Biological control: using natural, boilogical methods of controling pest populations.

Biologist: one who studies biology.

Biomass: total mass of a group of organisms per unit of area.

Biome: communities characterized by the same major life form,such as tundra.

Biosphere: total world of life.

Biotic factors: relationship among living organism in an ecosystem.

Biotic: tendency of all organisms to reproduce in large numbers, reproductive potentail.

Bipedal: locomotion: locomotion on two feet.

Birthrate: number of organism born in a given time period.

Bivalves: mollusks, which have two shells, include clams, oysters and mussels.

Blade: expanded part of a leaf.

Blastocoel: fluid filled cavity inside the blastula.

Blastipore: opening formed by the dorsal lip cutting into the blastula.


Blastula: hollow ball of cells in the early delopment of an embryo.

Blood: liquid which serves as an exchange medium between the internal parts of an organism and its external enviroment.

Blood pressure: pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels.

Bone: living tissue, which makes up the endoskeleton of most vertebrates.

Botany: stduy of plants

Bowman’s capsule: cup shaped part of a nephron

Brain: major coordinating center in vertebrate, nerve center in invertebrates similar in position and function to the vertebrate brain.

Breathing: movement of air into the and out of the lungs of complex animals.


Breathing Center:  area in the medulla oblongata, which controls the breath rate.

Bronchi: two large tubes branching from trachea in the lungs.

Bronchioles: tiny braches of the  bronchial tubes.

Bryophytes: most primitive of true land plants. Moses and liveworts.

Budding: type of vegetative propagation in which an out growth on the parent organism and later separates giving rise to a new organism.

Bulb: short underground stem surrounded by many scales, modified leaves.

Calvin cycle: pattern of reaction in the dark reaction of photoscnthesis.

Cambium. Tissue which as a plant grows in diameter.



















Posted by: lafoole | May 20, 2008

Science Q And A





Absolute zero:  heer kulka uga qabow, lowest possible tempreture, OK or 273 C

Accuracy:  Cabirka inta qiimaha oo kag duwan yahay qiimaha dhabta ah

Measure of the amount a value differs from the true value

Acid: ashito,walax oo ku jira hayrojiin iyo sheegta Ion ku jirta biyaha

a substacnce that cotians hyrogen and yeilds hyrogen ion in water

Actinie series: walax iyo atam laga  bilabo 89 iyo 103

 Elements with atomic number from 89 and 103

Activited complex: ku meel gaar ahaan loogu isticmaali karo, una dhaqayso falgalka

the temporary usualabe, intermediate union of the reaction

Activation energy:  inta uga hoosaysa ee u baahan yahay tabar si uu u soo saaro

            Wax isku dhafan,

the minimum amount of enegry needed to produce an activated complex

Addition reaction:

a reaction in organic chemistry in which atoms are added to a compound at the site of double or triple bonds.

Alcohols:  a family of organic compound in which the functional group is hyfroxy or OH group

Aldahydes the orgnic series with CHO as the functional group


Aliphatic relating to organic compounds having an open chain structure

Alkanes: the family of alphatic hyrocarbons having the general formula CnH2n +2 also

            Called methane or paraffin family

Alkenes: the family of aliphatic hyhrocarbon having the general formula CnH2n

Alkynes the family of alophatic hydrocarbons having formula cnhan s alsoc called the acetylene family

Allotrope a different physical form of an element with deferent properties

Alpha decay the spontaneous emision of an alpha particle by a nucleus

Apha particle: a lehium nucleud that is 2 protons 2 neutrons 4/2 HE

Amines: organic compounds with NH2 as a fuctional group

Amorphous: solid a soldid which soes not have a crystalline structure

Amphiprtic: relating to a subtancce, which can donate or accept a protin in a reaction

Anion: anegatively charge ion.

Anode: the electrode at which oxidation takes place.

Aromatic: relating to ring compounds in organic chemistry

Arrhenum acid:  a subtance, which yields the hyronuim ion in water solition.

Atomic mass: the average of the naturally occuring isotopes on an element.

Atomic mass units a realtive mass scale with a basic unit of 1/12 the mass of carbon 12

Atomic numbers the num, ber of the protons with a basic unit of 1/12 the mass of carbon

Atomic radius a measure of one half the distance between two nuclei in the solid phase.

equal volumes of gases, when measured under the same condition of tempreture; contain the some numbere of molecules

Avogadro’s number the number of particles n a moles of a compound

Base: subtance wich yeilds hydroxide ions in solution, a protins acceptor

Beta decay: natural radioactivity in which beta particles are emitted form the nucleus of a radioactive element, cuasing an increase in the atomic number

Beta particles: hight energy elections

Binding energy: the enegry that holds together the protons and neutrons in an atom’s nucleus

Bohr Model of the Atom: a model of the atom that pictures the nucleus or the center of the arom and electrons in fixed orbits similar to the solar system.

Boiling point:  the tempreture at which vaporization can occur any where in luquid.

Boyle’s law >the volume of a given mass of a gas varies inversely with the presure (tempreture in constand


Bronsted acid: a proton donor

Bronsted base: a proton acceptor



Calorie one kilocalorie, a thousand calories.

Calorimeter: a device used to measure the hear given off or absort during a recation.

Carboxyl groups the COOH funtional group of organatic acids.

Catalyst: a substace that change the speed of a chemical reaction without itself 

With out it self-being change.

Catenation: the bonding toghter of identical atoms to form chains or rings,very common

             Very common carbon

Cathode: the electrode at wich reduction takes place 

Cathode ray: electron emmitte from cathode

Cation: a positively changed ION

Celsius scale: the centigrade thermometer scale.

Charles’ law: the volume given mass of a gas varies directly with Kelvin temperature (pressure it constant   V1/V2 T1/T2 

Colligative: those properties of solutions that depend on number rather then on nature of


Compound:  a subtance composed of two or more elements chemically united in defenite

            Proporstion by weight

Condensation: the change of a vapor into liquid with an accompanying release of heat

Covalent bond: the sharing of a pair of electrons between two nuclei

Crystal: a solid whose atoms, ion. Or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern.





Decomoposition: a chemical reaction in which a complex substance breaks down to form             simplers substances

Density: the weight per unit volume solids and liquids are usaully expressed in g/cm

            Gasses in g/1

Diagramtic: materials that are repelled by a magnetic field

Dihydroxy alcohol: an alchohol having two OH group also called glycols

Dipole: a molecule having posively and nagetively charged sites

Dissociation: separation of IONs from a crystalline solid in solution.




Electrode: a conductor in an electrical cell by which current enters or leaves an electroclyte

Electrolysis: the decomposition of substance throught the use of electricity

Electrolyte: a substance that in solution can conduct an electric current

Electron: a negatively charged particular in an atom, which has the mass of 1/1840

            of proton.

Electron affinity: the amount of energy liberated when an electron is added to a neutral

            Gaseous atom.

Electronegativity: a meaasure of the attraction of a nucleous for an electron

Element: a pure substance, which cannot be decomposed by ordinary chemical means

Empirical formula: the simplest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound.

Endothermic reaction:  a reaction in which energy is absorbed.

Energy: the ability to do work, tabar shaqo qabashadda.

Enthalpy: the energy content of a system.

Entropy: a measure of the randomness of a sysytem.

Enzyme: an organic catalyst, usually a protein.

Equation: a statement which exprssess what has happened in a reaction.

Equilibrium: a state of balance between two chemical reactions in which opposing rates of reaction are equal.

Esterification: the reaction of an acid and an alchohol to produce water and an ester.


Evaportion: the changing of a stubstance from the liquid to the gaseous phase by the absorption of heat.


Excited atom: the state if an atom when an electron moves to a highter energy level leaving a lower energy level vacant.

Exothermic reaction: a reaction in which energy Is released.


Family: a vertical group in the peridic table.

Fission: the splitting of heavy nuclei in to lighter fragments.

Frequency: the number of cycles per second.

Fussion: the combining of two light nuclei to from the a heavier nucleus.

gamma rays: the hight energy x rays emitted from the nucleus of a radio active element.

gas density: the mass of a liter of gas expressed in grams per liter.

gas phrase: the phase of matter which has neither define volume nor shape.

Gay-lussac’s law: the volumes of combining gases are in small whole number ratio.

gram atomic mass: the gram amount of an element gases numerically equal of the atomic mass of the element.

gram-molecular mass: the mass of the       substance in grams numerically equal to the molecular mass of a compound.

ground state: the condition of an atom in which the electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels.


Group: the vertical columns of the periodic table,also called families.

Half-life: the length of time needed for one lalf of a given radioactive substance to undergo decay.

Halogenation: the placing of a halogen on a carbon chain.

Heat: the flow of energy between object of unequal temperature.



Heat of condensation: the amount of heat released as a unit of mass of a subtance from solid to liquid phase.


Heat of fusion: the amount of heat needed to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid phase.

Heat of reaction: the amount of hear released or obsorbed in a reaction.

Heat of solidification: the amount of heat released as a unit mass of a substance changes from the liquid to the solid phase.

Heat of vaporization: the amount of heat needed to evaporate a unit mass of a liquid at its boiling point.

Heterocylic” relating to ring compounds in which one or more of the members of the chain are not carbon

Heterogeneous: consisting of different ingredients.

Homogeneous: having similar properties throughtout.

Hydrocarbon:an organic conpound which contains only carbon and hydrogen.

Hydrogen bond: a special dipole dipole bond formed between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom of one molecule and a different atom of hight electronegativity of an indentical molecule.

Hydrogenation: the addition of hydrogen to a substance.



Ideal gas: a theorical gas, which occupies no volume and whose particles have no attraction for each other

Incandescence: light given off by an object, which is heated.

Ion: a charged atom or group of charged atoms.

Ionic bond: a bond formed by the charge of an electrons between two atoms

Ionization constant: the equilibrium contant of a reversible in which ions are produced from molecules.

Ionization energy: the amount of heat needed to remove electrons from nuetral

Gaseous atoms.

Isomers: different structural arrangements of one or more compound having the same composition.

Isotopes: atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass.



Kelvin temperature scale: a temperature scale which in 273 higher than celsuis scale.

Kernel: the nucleus of an atom plus all the electrons expect the valence electrons.


Kilogram: the standard unit of mass in the metric system.

Kinetic energy: energy of motion or use.

Kinetic theory: a theory to explain the behavior of gases.

Kinetics: the branch of chemistry that is concerned with the rates of chemical reactions.




Posted by: lafoole | May 19, 2008

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